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What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis?

Pulmonary fibrosis is a very serious lung disease that refers to the lung tissue becoming scarred and thickened, making it difficult for the lungs to function properly. It is a disease that has not been fully understood, making it even harder to deal with. Even though, we still need to know some basic information about this disease.

Pathological Mechanism

The pathological mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear, but usually, it is thought to involve injuries and damage to the lung tissue, which leads to inflammation and the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis). This scarring can cause the lungs to become stiff and less able to expand and contract properly, making it difficult to breathe.


There are several potential causes of lung tissue injury, including:

  • Exposure to certain chemicals or pollutants, such as asbestos or silica
  • Certain medications, such as bleomycin or methotrexate
  • Certain infections, such as pneumonia or tuberculosis
  • Autoimmune disorders, such as scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis


In general, It can be a result of other diseases (not only respiratory diseases) or exposure to the hazardous chemical that can enter your lung.


It's important to note that in some cases, the cause of pulmonary fibrosis may not be able to be determined. These cases are referred to as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.


The symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis can be gradual and non-specific, including shortness of breath, dry cough, fatigue, and weight loss. Other symptoms can include clubbing of the fingers or toes, and a whistling or crackling sound when breathing. These symptoms can develop gradually and can be similar to those of other lung diseases, making them difficult to be diagnosed. But it is still important to consult a doctor if you experience any of these symptoms as they may be indicative of pulmonary fibrosis or other serious lung condition.


Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease, meaning that it gets worse over time. As the lung tissue becomes scarred and thickened, it becomes increasingly difficult for the lungs to function properly. Without proper treatment, pulmonary fibrosis can be fatal.


Currently, there is no cure for pulmonary fibrosis, but treatments can help to slow the progression of the disease and improve the symptoms.


Some of the available treatments include, but are not limited to:


Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can help reduce inflammation and slow the progression of the disease.

Immunosuppressants, such as azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, can also be used to slow the progression of the disease by suppressing the immune system.

Oxygen therapy:

Oxygen therapy can help alleviate shortness of breath by increasing the amount of oxygen in the body.


Lung transplantation may be an option for some patients with severe pulmonary fibrosis.

Physical therapy:

Physical therapy can help improve breathing and muscle strength and reduce fatigue.

Supportive care:

Pulmonary rehabilitation may include exercise, education, and counseling to help patients manage their condition and improve their quality of life.

Support groups and patient education:

Pulmonary fibrosis is a difficult disease to manage, both physically and emotionally. So patients and their families can benefit quite a lot from support groups and education about the disease, so they can better understand the condition and how to manage it.


The treatment plan will vary depending on the individual case and will be determined by the patient's overall health and the severity of the condition.


Diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis can be challenging and may require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of a pulmonologist, radiologist, and pathologist. The diagnosis typically begins with a thorough medical history and physical examination. If pulmonary fibrosis is suspected, the following tests are usually performed:


Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray can show characteristic changes in the lungs associated with pulmonary fibrosis, such as increased lung markings and a honeycomb pattern.


CT scan: A CT scan can provide detailed images of the lungs and can help confirm the diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis.


Lung function tests: Spirometry and diffusion capacity can be used to measure lung function and can help determine the severity of the condition.


Bronchoscopy: A bronchoscopy is a procedure in which a flexible scope is inserted into the lungs to examine the airways and take samples of lung tissue for analysis.


Biopsy: A biopsy of the lung tissue is considered the gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary fibrosis. A small sample of lung tissue is removed and examined under a microscope to confirm the presence of fibrosis and to exclude other possible diagnoses.


If pulmonary fibrosis is diagnosed, further tests may be performed to determine the underlying cause of the condition.


Preventing pulmonary fibrosis can be challenging, as the exact causes of the condition are not fully understood. However, there are things we can do to reduce the risk of developing the condition.


Avoiding exposure to known lung irritants:

Avoiding exposure to known lung irritants, such as asbestos, silica, and certain chemicals can help reduce the risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis.

Quit smoking:

Smoking is a major risk factor for lung disease, including pulmonary fibrosis. Quitting smoking can help reduce the risk of developing the condition.

Control of underlying disease:

Managing and controlling underlying medical conditions, such as scleroderma and other autoimmune disorder can help reduce the risk of pulmonary fibrosis.


Pneumococcal and influenza vaccination can reduce the risk of lung infection, which is a common cause of pulmonary fibrosis.

Early diagnosis and treatment of lung infection:

Early diagnosis and treatment of lung infections, such as pneumonia and tuberculosis, can do much help to prevent the development of pulmonary fibrosis.


It's important to note that, even with these precautions, it may not be possible to entirely prevent the development of pulmonary fibrosis. A regular check-up with the doctor and monitoring for symptoms of the condition is crucial.

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